No matter what type of forklift, basically consists of the following 4 major parts:
(1) Power part. It is used to provide power for forklifts. It is generally installed at the rear of the forklift and serves as a counterweight.
(2) Chassis. Accept the power of the power device to make the forklift move and ensure its normal walking.
(3) Working part. Used to fork and lift goods.
(4) Electrical equipment
Due to the differences in the structure and installation location of the above four parts that make up the forklift, different types of forklifts are formed. The counterbalanced forklift is a common form of forklift. The following uses this type of forklift as an example to introduce the components of the forklift.
1. Power part
Most of the power parts of internal combustion forklifts are powered by conventional reciprocating plug internal combustion engines. It has gasoline engine, diesel engine and liquid petroleum gas engine; the power device of electric forklift is composed of battery and DC series excited motor. In recent years, new forklifts have appeared, and their power is dual fuel or dual power. The drive train is a device that receives power and transmits it to the driving system. It is generally two types of mechanical transmission system and hydraulic mechanical transmission system. The former is composed of a friction clutch, a gear transmission, a universal transmission device, a main transmission device and a differential installed in the drive axle; the latter replaces the friction clutch with a hydraulic torque converter, and the rest is the same as the former. In recent years, a new type of forklift has come out, adopting a full hydraulic transmission system. Reduced transmission components and ensure reliability.
2. Chassis part
The driving system is a device that ensures the rolling operation of the forklift and supports the entire forklift. It is composed of brackets, axles, wheels, and suspension devices; the front axle of the forklift is the driving axle, which is for the maximum axle load of the front axle during heavy loading In order to improve the quality of the adhesion on the drive wheels, the ground adhesion is increased to ensure that the engine's driving force can be fully exerted. The rear axle is the steering axle. The steering device is located in front of the driver, and the levers such as the gear lever are placed on the right side of the driver's seat. The steering system is used to make the forklift walk in the direction determined by the driver's wishes. The forklift steering system can be divided into two types: mechanical steering system and power steering system according to the energy required for steering. The former uses the driver's physical energy as the steering energy and is composed of three parts: the steering gear, the steering transmission mechanism and the control mechanism; the latter is a steering device that uses the driver's physical energy and engine power as the steering energy. Under normal circumstances, only a small part of the energy required for forklift steering * is provided by the driver, most of which is provided by the engine through the steering afterburner. However, when the steering afterburner fails, the driver should generally be able to assume the task of steering the car. When the forklift is operating, the steering and walking are changeable. In order to reduce the driver's handling burden, the internal combustion forklift mostly uses a power steering device. Commonly used power steering devices include integral power steering, semi-integral power steering and steering afterburner. The braking system is a system that slows down or stops the forklift. It consists of brake and brake transmission mechanism. According to the braking energy, the braking system can be divided into three types: human braking system, dynamic braking system and servo braking system. The former uses the driver's physical fitness as the braking energy; the middle completely depends on the potential energy in the form of air pressure or hydraulic pressure converted by the power of the engine as the braking energy; the latter is a combination of the former and the middle.
On a counterbalanced forklift, a counterweight is provided at the rear of the forklift to balance the mass of the cargo at the front of the forklift. The power unit (internal combustion engine) or battery of the forklift is generally installed at the rear of the forklift to play a partial balancing role.
3. Working part
The working part is the direct working mechanism of the forklift for loading and unloading operations. It consists of the following 5 parts:
(1) Retrieval tool. It is a variety of work accessories represented by forks, used for fork picking, gripping, shoveling goods.
(2) Lifting shelves. Used to install forks or other work attachments, and drag the goods together to move up and down.
(3) Door frame. It is the skeleton of the working device, most of the parts of the working device are installed on the gantry. The two-section gantry is composed of an outer gantry and an inner gantry that can be lifted up and down along the outer gantry; the three-section gantry is composed of three gantry: inner, middle and outer.
(4) Mast tilting mechanism. The main frame is tilted forward and backward, mainly composed of tilting cylinders.
(5) Lifting mechanism. Power device and traction device for pulling goods up and down. It is mainly composed of sprockets, chains and lifting cylinders that drive the shelves up and down.
(6) Hydraulic control system. It is the sum of the lifting of the goods and the tilting of the gantry and other actions completed by the hydraulic system to achieve the timely control device. It consists of hydraulic components, pipelines and control mechanisms.
4. Electrical equipment
Electrical equipment is mainly composed of batteries, forklift lighting, various warning and warning signal devices, and other electrical components and circuits. The battery forklift has a series-excited DC motor; the internal combustion engine forklift has an electric starter; in addition, the gasoline engine forklift has a high-voltage electric spark ignition device.
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